Monday, March 9, 2020
Calvin and Hobbes essays Commercialization: A Cheapening of Art Bill Watterson is a man of principles who voices his convictions and enforces them with his actions. This essay lays out the claim of value that commercialization of comics detracts from the quality of the art. Watterson never compromised his vision of how he viewed his characters-even if it meant sacrificing millions of dollars and fighting syndicates for years. Wattersons Calvin and Hobbes was an instant success, too big in fact for Wattersons liking. As soon as he became a household name, his battle with Universal Press Syndicate began. Commercialization is the name of the game in the comic industry. Dolls, mugs, T-shirts, TV cartoons, these were just the tip of the iceberg when it came to turning Calvin and Hobbes into a multi-million dollar profit center. Wattersons opinion on this subject is very different in respect to other cartoonists, I believe licensing cheapens the original creation....nothing dulls the edge of a new and clever cartoon like saturating the market with it (reemst.com 1). He did not want licensing or commercialization whatsoever and literally turned down millions of dollars because of his firm belief in keeping the spirit of the comic fresh. Naturally, his syndicate was not about let this go without a fight, and he spent the next five years trying to maintain control over his own creation. Eventually, his contract was re-negotiated and his wishes respected. When a cartoonist and his or her syndicate have a clash about money, it is usually because the artist wants more, not less. They wanted to exploit the comic and get more exposure, fame, and money from it. However, Watterson made his wishes clear to Universal Syndicates; he wouldn't license "Calvin & Hobbes" for commercial use, no matter what. If they would not abide by his wishes, he would quit the job. The integrity of the characters was the most important...
Friday, February 21, 2020
Risk Management - research technique - Essay Example As a result, this demands a clear statement of the problem (Patton, M. Q., 2002). It is never an aimless search for something nonspecific with the hopes of coming across an incidental solution, rather it demands a clear objective and plan. Research will always underpin the current knowledge on the field with critical weightage on both the positive and negative findings, and the researcher consequently must have enough openness and reasonable flexibility to identify and analyse the true colours of the data. To be able to do this, the researcher would aim towards systematic collection and analysis of the collected data to answer the original research objectives (Babbie, E. 2004), and this is where the methodology is to be carefully selected depending on the question. This work will attempt to explore the application of methodology in researches in risk management. Over the last two decades, different authors have voiced some serious concerns about effectiveness of using the prevailing positivism that states that only authentic knowledge arising from strict scientific methods affirming theories is acceptable. Epistemology is theory of knowledge that studies a concept or a question that belongs to both truth and belief by justification through a methodical study considering that fact that there would always be limitations in any concept to arrive at the truth, so that new questions will arise. In the general sense in our specific area, this is a general term indicating knowledge from any source that can be analyzed and corroborated, questioned, authenticated, or discarded. Ontology, on the other hand, describes the basic categories of existence to define and categories of entity. This, therefore, can study conceptions of reality. An example would make these definitions clear. In the field of risk management, a search for what and how, the recognition of risk, its assessment, is epistemology. Whereas, when one desires to develop strategies to manage a given risk in order to mitigate it using managerial resources, it calls for study of the conceptions of reality so that the nature of the kn owable things are explicit, and a methodology further calibrates distinct entities that are measurable. Research grows and develops within the intellectual climate of the times. Within the last 50 years or so, there has been a gradual but notable drift from qualitative research based on conceptions of reality towards quantitative research based on logical positivist model, then a critique of the positivist model, and then a greater acceptance of qualitative research (Strauss, A., and Corbin, J. 1990). There had invariably been debate between the two schools of approaches, as to which method is the most suitable in terms of technical feasibility to arrive at the truth or reality and more importantly, these were framed in terms of epistemology: what is the best way to comprehend the world. No wonder, there is still continuing debate regarding this across the line of division since notions of epistemology rest within ontology, what is the nature of the world one wishes to know about. Quantitative Research Quantitative
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
GYPSY DANCE from spain - Research Paper Example The dances also represent freedom - freedom of personal and spiritual expression, the only type of freedom possible for an oppressed people. (Background on Romani Dance) The culture of the Gypsies can be interpreted as being intellectually divine and intriguing which is successfully expressed through their music and dance. It is probably safe to assume that because of various pull factors and migratory patterns, the Gypsies who are Indians by native and not Egyptians travelled throughout Europe and beyond settling in different geographic locations such as Spain. What they brought with them, however, throughout this wary travel was their unique identity of culture. Between 800 and 900 A.D., a large exodus of people occurred from the Punjabi region of India. These people are believed to be members of the Untouchables, a group within the Indian caste system comprised of animal traders and trainers, acrobats, dancers, musicians, palmists and metalworkers. These nomadic groups, generally referred to as Roman and/or gypsies, divided into two major migratory routes, the most traceable moving west across Asia and the European continent, including Spain. The first recorded account of Spanish Gitanos "Beticos" dates from 1447 in Barcelona. It is also believed that a second migratory route took them down to and across North Africa (including Egypt) and up into Southern Spain "Andalusia" via the Gibraltar. This faction, known as Cale (black), has been far more difficult to verify and trace due to the great similarity of appearance and lifestyle to the indigenous peoples along the route. We should not forget that Southern Spain was part of the Islamic Empire for a period of 800 years. Although, the Northern Beticos immigrated to the more tolerant Islamic region of Andalusia, to this day, the gypsies themselves maintain a great distinction between the Beticos and Ã¢â¬ËCalesÃ¢â¬â¢, with virtually no intermarriage between the groups. During the Inquisition of the Ã¢â¬ËRe conquistaÃ¢â¬â¢, even this tolerance ended while gypsies from all over Spain were herded into "gitanerias" or ghettos. However unjust and cruel, this persecution and isolation was the very influence that safeguarded the purity of their music and dance within the family group. Finally, in 1782, the Leniency Edict of Charles III restored some measure of freedom to the Spanish gypsy and allowed this music and dance to be presented to and adopted by the general population of Spain. This resulted in a period of great exploration and evolution within the art form, which continues to this day. Unlike the common gypsy language, gypsy music has great variety, varying from country to country, with strong local characteristics which, to a certain extent, are decided by their nomadic lifestyle. The gypsies picked up the music from their surroundings and the native people present, and adopted it with their own understanding. As a result, gypsy music has highly-flavored traits of region, which in turn has a significant impact on the development of the local music. For instance, a gypsy who migrated from Russia will add accordion or guitar into their music. The alternation of solo and chorus, and parallel thirds can frequently be
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Factors Affecting Purchase Of A Smart Phone In this chapter, there are 4 independent variable and dependent variable. These variables are important to examine this research. These variables include brand name, features, price and quality. Besides, this chapter will be including the reading materials which are based on the topic of this research. The materials that included will be extracting from online journals, articles and magazines. The researcher gets the genuine journals from online databases, such as Emerald Intelligent, ScienceDirect , ProQuest Digital Dissertation Abstract and Google Scholar. The purpose of doing this research is to study the factors that affecting consumers to purchase Smartphone in Malaysia. Smartphone is getting attention from all segments of consumer today, but there must be some factor that will affect their behaviour before buying it rather than purchasing the normal basic cell-phone. According to Khasawneh and Hasouneh (2010), the products brand name will influence consumers evaluation and then perceive different products offering which as a result will affect on consumers behaviour when purchasing products and understanding consumers behaviour is a decisive factor in the companies success around the world. Therefore, this research is to determine whether or not brand name will affect the Malaysian consumers when they are making their purchasing on a Smartphone. Feature has the strong ability to induce consumers purchasing decision. This explains that when consumers are purchasing any products, consumers will tend to make us of the products feature as a basis for evaluating a product (Puth, Mostert and Ewing, 1999). Features for Smartphone is not only one two three, it will depends on the users preference on what are their needs. Build-in camera is getting more focus from the consumer nowadays, mobile phone manufacturer tend to improve the camera and speaker in order to fulfil customers needs. Therefore, this research will have the intentions to find out if feature is the major persuasive factor that affecting consumer behaviour towards purchasing a Smartphone. Almost every advertisement accentuates on price, 90 percent of retailers in this market screen the prices of their competitors on a regular basis (Kenning, Evanschitzky, Voegl and Ahlert (2007). Kunal and Yoo (2010) shows that price has a positive impact on behavioral intentions. In other words, consumer will tend to have more purchasing intentions if the price is consumers perception and vice-versa. For that reason, this research will find out whether or not price will influence consumer heavily when they come to buying a Smartphone. According to Khanna, Vat, Shankar, Sahay and Gautam (2003), stated that none of the writers disagree that quality is one of the most crucial critical success factors in order for organizations to achieve competitiveness among competitors. They further interpret that quality had make the Japaneses automobile industry overtook the USAs during 1980s and become the biggest in the world though Japans automobile industry started several decades behind the USAs. In other words, quality is an important factor that consumer will put into consideration before making any purchasing decision, therefore, this independent variables is to find out whether or not it will have the same effect towards consumers in Malaysia when purchasing a Smartphone. All these variables are important because they are main factors that have positive related to the dependent variable. In this research, independent variables that would be focused on are brand name, features, price and quality. In excess of 1.3 billion people are using cell phone worldwide today while the year of 2003, an estimated number of 1,340,667 cell phone subscribers were being perceive worldwide, an increment from approximately 91million in the year of 1995 and 1.158 billion in the year 2002 of 53.49% of total telephone subscribers (Goggin, 2005). Besides, it was also supported by Gart-ner and Ahonen (2010), stating that more than 1.3 billion mobile phone handsets are being sold each year, and in the year of 2010, Smartphones made up almost 20% of that total (Gart-ner and Ahonen, 2010). Sales of Smartphones are escalating almost 100% per year, and is expected in the year of 2012 the total global sales volume is expected to surpass the sales of PCs (Gartner, 2010). C:UsersUserDesktop01.jpg Figure 2.1: Worldwide Smartphone Sales for the year of 2008. Source: Andreas Jakl, 2009. In the year of 2008, the highest worldwide Smartphone sales belongs to Nokia, 43.7% from the worldwide Smartphone sales in 2008 belongs to Nokia. In order for Nokia to be the leader of the market, there must be some reason behind. Regardless what the brand is, consumer will look at various points before making any decision. ). According to Kupiec and Revell (2001) the intention to purchase a product will be more depending on the scale to which consumers expect the product to reach their satisfaction level when they consume it. According to Yu and Tan (2005), in July 2001, the Ministry of Information Industry (MII) of the Peoples Republic of China publicize d that the figure of its mobile phone users has achieved 120.6 million, which makes China the major mobile communication market in the world. This was supported by Bell (2006), the worlds current largest cell phone market belongs to the Peoples Republic of China. In Asia, the usage ratio of mobile phones in Hong Kong is slightly higher as contrasted with other Asian countries (Chan, and Chan 2008). Mobile phone penetration rate is ranked as the second highest in Asia Pacific (International Telecommunication Union, 2004). The consumer desirous for Smartphone is increasing dramatically and will move forwards annual sales wide-reaching from 131 million units in 2008 to over 300 million by 2013, according to market research company Parks Associates (Cellular-News, 2009). http://img.cellular-news.com/story/38286/Global_sales_of_smartphones_to_reach_310_million_units_in_2013_1.png Figure 2.2: The global Smartphone sales units (2008 2009) and predicted sales units (2010 -2013) The occurrence of economic recession in recent years does not seriously infected the industry, a report by Berridge (2010) stated that the industry was not really suffered that critically during the recession seeing that the sales for 2009 were down a bit at 1.15 billion units but that was not that far down from the 1.2 billion handsets whipped in year 2008. The constructive impact of communication is experience by more Nigerians in the past four years than they what they came across in the first three decades of self-government (Adomi, 2005). According to Myers and Shocker (1981), factors can be pigeonholed in many ways which comprises extrinsic and intrinsic. The extrinsic aspects that include physical prompt such as features and brand name (Olson and Jacob, 1972). On the other hand the aspect that did not consider as part of the physical of product includes price and quality (Olson, 1977). The mobile phone has become an indispensable tool that is found in all doctors pockets with the advancement of technologies, the phones have become more stylish over time, especially with the introduction of third generation technology in 2001(Dala-Ali, Lloyd and Al-Abed, 2011). This has immensely increased both the storage and also the speed of mobile phones. There are many third generation phones obtainable from the market; among the most well accepted are the Blackberry and the iPhone, given that the iPhone is a smartphone produced by Apple Inc. and was launched in the USA in June 2007 and since then over 33 million phones have been sold worldwide and the number of European iPhone users rose by 161% in the year running up to April 2010 (Dala-Ali, Lloyd and Al-Abed, 2011). 2.1 History of telecommunication If histories of media have their difficulties, there are uncharacteristic trials and description in seeking to devise histories of the newer media (Flichy, 2002). Mobile telecommunication technologies have matured in consecutive generations (Dunnewijk and Hulten, 2007). According to Goggin (2005) the mobile phone has been in development for at least fifty years regardless of the mobile phone relatively recent commercial availability and consumer adoption from the early 1980s onwards. It also recursively adopts and reconstructs lifestyle, anticipations, and cultural forms from two other technologies central to modernity, to be exact the telegraph and telephone (Goggin, 2005). The history of mobile telephone goes back to experiments in the US in the 1920s with radio telephony (Kargman, 1978 and Agar, 2003). The first mobile phones were usually car-bound and ATT launched in 1947 a highway service between Boston and New York after the success of first mobile telephone network in St. Louis (Agar, 2003). Eventually radiotelephony became so crammed full, in New York particularly, that the network operators used waiting lists while candidate customers waited hoping to be so lucky to get a mobile phone connection (Agar, 2003). By the year of 1950 there were still only fifty million telephones in use in the world (Goodman, 2003). Goodman (2003) also further stated that Japan was the first to adopt fixed line phone which is in the 1970s, the number was go beyond by mobile phone somewhere in year 2002, International Telecommunications Union (ITU) predicts that the figure will almost one in three in the year of 2005. In the year of 1996, Nokia introduced the Communicator, a GSM mobile phone and handheld computer which had a QWERTY keyboard and built in word processing and calendar programs that allows besides sending and receiving faxes, the 9000 could check e-mail and access the internet in a limited way (Farley, 2005). Whereas the first generation (1G) appeared in the 1950s, while the second generation (2G) or GSM technology is used extremely wide, but challenged globally by the subsequently (third) generation (3G) technologies. This sequence of generations is characterised by increasing capacity (higher transmission speeds) and richer content of the message. Further penetration of 3G depends critically on the integration of telecommunication services and multimedia services, which turned out to be more complicated than most experts predicted (Dunnewijk and Hulten, 2007). The fruition of Chinas mobile telecom industry since its inauguration in the year of 1987 and appears to be a multistage industrial development process with policy intrusion and market competition. (Siau and Shen, 2003, Maitland, Bauer and Westerveld, 2002, Barnes and Corbitt, 2003). The number of mobile subscribers in China had twofold each year from year 1994 to 2001, by the Q4 of 2002; China had 206.3 million mobile telecommunications subscribers and had become one of the most attractive spots for the international and domestic telecom operators, equipment and phone manufacturers (Yu and Tan, 2005). In addition, Bell (2006), stated that the worlds current largest cell phone market belongs to the Peoples Republic of China. In the mobile telecommunications circles, systemic improvement examples are the successive generations of first generation (1G), second generation (2G) and third generation (3G) systems and this revolution will affect not only our daily lives and the way business is accomplished (Siau and Shen, 2003, Maitland, Bauer and Westerveld, 2002, Barnes and Corbitt, 2003). Table 1: List of best selling brand, year of founded and homepage. Brand of Phone Year of Founded Homepage Nokia 1865 http://www.nokia.com/ Motorola 1928 http://www.motorola.com/Consumers/XP-EN/Consumer-Products-and-Services/Mobile-Phones/ Samsung Mobile 1938 http://my.samsungmobile.com/index.jsp LG mobile 1958 http://www.lg.com/my/mobile-phones/index.jsp Palm 1996 http://www.palm.com/us/ HTC 1997 http://www.htc.com/sea/ Blackberry 1999 http://worldwide.blackberry.com/landing.jsp?regionId=22 Sony Ericsson 2001 (Joint Venture of Sony Corporation and Ericsson) http://www.sonyericsson.com/cws/cws/home?cc=mylc=en Apple iPhone 2007 http://www.apple.com/iphone/ 2.2 Variables 2.2.1 Consumer Behavior Consumer behaviour can be defined as the acquisition, consumption and disposition of products, services, time and ideas by decision making units. While consumer decision making can be defined as a mental orientation characterizing a consumers approach to making choices (Lysonski, Durvasula and Zotos 1996). Value is created when a consumer is offered useful information and gains understanding, reassurance and/or hedonic fulfilment in the process (Grant, Clarke and Kyriazis, 2007). The value creation relies on an analysis of online consumer behaviour to determine which information sources and formats are most likely to meet their needs at a given point in time (Grant, Clarke and Kyriazis, 2010). #To make the decision of purchasing, consumers take into account criteria such as reliability, quality, price and convenience of the product (Sanlier and Karakus, 2010). In contrast to simple or routine purchases, complex consumer behaviour may involve an extended process with a range of activities, each of which presents different challenges for a consumer (Assael, Pope, Brennan and Voges, 2007).Analysis of consumer purchasing decisions is not uncommon and a body of knowledge has developed (Watson, Howard and Patrick, 2002).There are several models and theories which describe consumer behaviour from a specific perspective (Estri, Hassangholipour, Yazdani, Nejad and Rayej 2010). Among all these models, the purchase decision model helps to understand the relation between consumer behaviour variables better than the other models. According to Kim, Forsythe, Gu and Moon (2002), is been an ongoing marketing challenges for retailing in competitive global markets towards marketers to meet the changes of customer needs by providing the right products and services. A consumers decision-making style has been defined as a patterned, mental, cognitive orientation towards shopping and purchasing, which constantly dominates the consumers choices (Safirk Mokhlis and Hayatul Safrah Salleh, 2009). It is common knowledge that price influences a customers buying decision (Monroe, 1973). Intention to purchase depends on the degree to which consumers expect the product to satisfy them when they consume it (Kupiec and Revell ,2001). When a consumer wanted to make the purchase decision, they will pass through the process through recognition, search information, evaluation, purchase, feedback (Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, 1995). Therefore, the consumer will choose a product or brand to consume from various choice can get in the market. According to Bettman, Johnson and Payne (2000), different situation will be affect by different factors. Information overload also increase the complexity of the consumer behaviour towards purchasing a product (Bettman, Johnson and Payne, 2000). The information can be obtained by advertisement, display, brochures and etc. A study by Lynch and Srull (1982) suggested that decision-making can be categorized in 3 categories which are stimulus-based, memory-based and mixed. When consumer affect by the external information or factor can be category in stimulus-based. When consumer makes decision based on their memory or internal perception can be category in memory-based. The combination of this two is mixed. Consumer has different tastes, needs, motivation and lifestyle when they want to purchase a product (Chisnall, 1985). Some of them preferred high quality and willing to pay high price, some of them are not (Monroe, 2003). Furthermore, the consumer behaviour towards purchasing a product can be investigating through the consumer characteristics. It include Brand conscious, price conscious, quality conscious, recreation conscious, innovation conscious, confused by over choice, impulsive and brand (Leo, Bennett, and Hartel, 2005). Therefore, it is important to find out the relationship between those characteristics and the consumer purxhasing behaviour. 2.2.2 Brand Name In todays changing global environment, many businesses are facing increasing competition that forces them to seek for competitive advantage, efficiency and profitable ways to differentiate among them (Mei, Dean and White, 1999). Brand names are valuable assets that help correspond quality and suggest precise knowledge structures which related to the brand (Srinivasan and Till, 2002). Researchers have distinguished that brand name as an important tool in improving a products value (Dodds, Monroe and Grewal, 1991). According to Rotfled (2009), brand name is an exclusive and is to indicate product itself to the market. Besides according to the American Marketing Association, defined the brand as name, term, symbol, or design, or a combination of them intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competition (Khasawneh and Hasouneh, 2010). Haigh (2007) has proposed three definitions: trademark is a logo with associat ed visual elements, brand is a trademark with associated intellectual property rights, and branded business covers the whole organization. According to Rao and Ruekert (1994), stated that one of the major objectives of a brand name is to provide information on the quality of a product. The value of a brand name adds to the product is named as brand equity (Farquhar, 1989). Developing brand equity is thought to be an important component of brand building (Keller, 1998). Brand equity is assumed to convey several benefits to a firm (Pappu, Quester and Cooksey, 2005). Brands might develop sustainable competitive advantage for firms (Aaker, 1989). As a result, if consumers perceive a particular brand favourably, then the firm may have a competitive advantage (Pappu, et. al, 2005). Brand name is lack of possibilities to establish in short term, in other words, is needed to develop in long term. More and more companies realized that one of their most priceless assets is the brand names that related with their products or services (Cornelis, 2010). In recent aggressive competitive market place, the most critical success element for companies is the brand name that were being used by a product, and further stated that the brand names are consider as the last source of differentiation for the companies products and services (Lim and OCass, 2001). According to Khasawneh and Hasouneh (2010), the products brand name will influence consumers evaluation and then perceive different products offering which as a result will affect on consumers behaviour when purchasing products and understanding consumers behaviour is a decisive factor in the companies success around the world. Brand managers face a complex and multifaceted task in managing the meaning of brands on a global scale (Andrews and Kim, 2007). Why do companies develop their own brands? According to Thanasuta, Patoomsuwan, Chaimahawong and Chiaravutthi (2009), the presence of brands were to identify and differentiate the products or services between the companies or organizations. It was further stated that brand name can lend a hand to the brand itself to pass on the information and communicate to the market (Hoyer and Brown, 1990). Also pointed by researchers, consumer have an unlikely similar perception towards different brand and also have a diverse perception of the products attribute and quality (Srinivasan and till, 2002). Indeed technology is no longer a matter of haves and have-nots but of basic services versus advanced ones but as technologies mature and product features become more similar, consumers are often unable or unwilling to differentiate between brands on rational attributes alone (Temporal and Lee, 2001). According to Forsythe (1995), brand name will be the vital indications or an extrinsic cue (Olson a nd Jacob, 1972) that will lead consumer to make their purchasing decision when they are trapped in a dilemma whereby they need to choose between two products. When the intrinsic indicator recognition of the product such as price is missing, consumers will tend to recognize it based on the brand name of the products or services (Ahmed and dAstous, 1996). Since consumers will have the knowledge on the brand which will cause consumers to create a perception on the brand, therefore they are able to measure the level of preferences whether or not the brand is pleasing their requirement (Urbany, Dickson, and Wilkie, 1989). To endeavour with this situation, some precise and adequate knowledge on the brand itself is a pre-requisite for consumers (Ratneshwar, Shocker and stewart, 1987). According to Baltas and Saridakis (2009), usually those who are more particular on the products quality will be more expose to the affection of brand name. Brand extension is a strategy that many companies follow with the aim of benefiting from the brand knowledge achieved in the current markets (Aaker and Keller, 1990).When a new product is marketed under a well-known brand name, failure rates and marketing costs are reduced (Martinez and Pina, 2010). Benefits of a great brand include a short-term gain on recognition to long-term competitive advantage on loyalty, which are ultimately translated into revenues and profits. 2.2.3 Price Price has been observed as an important element affecting the diffusion of new products and services, but pricing of a new product or service is particularly difficult (Munnukka, 2005). Nagle and Holden (2002) stated that price can play a role as a monetary value whereby the consumers to trade it with the services or products that were being sold by the sellers. Price will always be the key concern of consumers before making any purchasing decision (Smith and Carsky, 1996). Price equality is a psychological aspect which is persuasive towards consumers reactions to price (Campbell, 1999). Prices are perceived to be inequitable; consumers respond unenthusiastically by stay away from transactions, contacts with the provider or even engage in penalizing actions such as boycotts (Homburg, Hoyers and koschate, 2005). If a transaction or a price is perceive as unfair by consumers, they will engage in disciplinary actions (Antje and Mark, 2010). They will avoid the transaction and do not buy at all. Besides, there is a positive relationship between individuals perception of fairness and their level of expenditures, and that consumers tend to spend more money with specific providers if transactions are considered fair (Daskalopoulou and Petrou, 2006).Oh (2003) found that buyers comparison of actual price against their internally held reference price seems to affect their subsequent judgments about price, quality, and value. Kunal and Yoo (2010) shows that price has a positive impact on behavioral intentions. Price is one tangible cue from which consumers form expectations. As a result, the elements of marketing play a more important role in services since consumers are more sensitive to cues such as price (Bitner, 1990). Voss, Parasuraman and Grewal (1998) suggested that the link between price and satisfaction. When the consumers are satisfied with the price, they will purchase the product. Furthermore, should be noted that consumers buy high priced brands (typically luxury goods), driven by either social adjunctive attitudes that seek design, image, or social status or value-expression attitudes that seek product durability or quality (Wilcox, Kim and Sankar, 2009). Conspicuousness (willingness to spend a great amount of money to demonstrate their social status) also plays an important role on brand purchases (Kunal et al., 2010). Wilcox et al. (2009) find that high-priced brands are highly related to consumer conspicuousness. Consumers looking for quality, status, self expression, and image will gravitate toward high-priced brands to fulfill their goals, the achievement of which can be signaled through promotional messages of conspicuousness and exclusivity (Kunal et al., 2010). The level of price is found to positively affect behavioral intentions mainly because price establishes image of the brand in the eyes of the consumers (Aaker, 1991). In a consumers heuristics, a high (low) price connotes a high (low) quality and image. For a conceptual convenience, there are two types of products by price: high-priced brands and low priced brands (Kunal et al., 2010). High-priced brands are brands on the market whose image is seen as the key factor. Consumers of these brands often purchase them mainly for image and are willing to pay a premium price for their perceived high quality and status, which make them price-inelastic (Bolton, 1989). Low-priced brands tend to be purchased for utilitarian value, with the consumer relying on the perceived value for price. Consumers would typically look for low prices of these brands or substitutes to get the best value (Kunal et al., 2010). Consumers tend to interpret higher prices with higher quality, and low prices are percei ved as an indication of inferior quality (Rao and Monroe, 1988) According to Thaler (1985), there is more than couple of brand of mobile phone that consumer will find in todays market, this will most likely influence the consumers indicator on the pricing that being sold. Price is no longer an element that can be ignore for investigation whether or not it is an crucial factor that affects consumers behaviour in products and services. Given an example, a customer is choosing either a offline and a online book store for books, the distance of the store will be the first consideration and then followed by the time needed for delivery and lastly the price of it (Karlsson, Kuttainen, Pitt and Spyropoulou, 2005). As seen, price is a vital issue that the consumers need count into consideration. Recently, most of the consumers are pursuing a high quality services, though service is an important factor, yet the unwillingness of consumers to pay for obtaining a higher level of service by sacrificing an extra amount can still be seen (Tse, 2001). On the oth er hand, price might not be part of their considerations especially when dealing with web shopping, which the major concern falls on convenience, security and store offer (So, Wong and Sculli, 2005). In addition, there is a positive relationship between price and quality (Etgar and Malhotra, 1981). It explains that most of the consumers will regard high price goods and services equals to high quality. Thus, if the price level is at a peak but the quality or features are comply with the consumers expectation; they might perceive as fair and are more willing to pay a at a higher price to owns a better quality goods or services (Monroe, 2003). Due to the price of a product has a key authority on the consumers buying decision (Evanschitzky, Kenning and Vogel, 2004), it is normal to concentrate on it. As a precondition to valuing a price as low, the consumer must have at least a vague idea of the normal price. Only if that idea of normal price is present consumers can assess whether or not the offer is a bargain. The marketing-mix instrument of price is currently used excessively to attract consumers to a particular product or store. According to Kenning, Evanschitzky, Voegl and Ahlert (2007) nearly, every advertisement emphasizes price that over 90 percent of retailers in this market screen the prices of their competitors on a regular basis. Price knowledge is a psychological construct that relevant to retailer success, since it influences both a consumers buying decision and the sales margin. At the same time, it can help the retailer to exploit consumer willingness to pay. The price of a product is one of the most important marketing-mix tools which are currently used excessively to attract consumers to a certain product or store (Evanschitzky, Kenning and Vogel, 2004). Price knowledge is a psychological construct that is relevant to the success of the retailer, since it influences a consumers buying decision. At the same time, it can help the retailer to exploit the consumers willingness to pay by using information about price knowledge for the pricing of products.
Monday, January 20, 2020
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder ( PMDD ) Everyone experiences some unhappiness in his or her lifetime whether it is a specific situation or not. It becomes more serious when the cause is a form of "depression." It is a fact that women experience depression about twice as much as men (1). These causes specifically for women can be complex and so are the solutions (3). A common syndrome affecting an estimated 3% to 8% of women in their reproductive years is called Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) (4). PMDD is specifically known as a mood disorder of severe depression, irritability, and tension with symptoms worsening a week or so before a woman's menstrual period and usually settling out afterwards (5). PMDD can be devastating to all areas of a woman's everyday life, including family relationships, friendships, and the ability to work or go to school (3). Many people still believe that the emotional symptoms caused by PMDD are not real, and that a woman should be able to shake off the symptoms if only she tried hard enough. Because of these inaccurate beliefs, women with this depression either may not recognize that they have a treatable disorder or may be discouraged from seeking or staying on treatment. Often, women's concerns regarding their condition are not taken seriously which leads to feelings of self-doubt, frustration and hopelessness (6). Feeling sad or stressed during a menstrual period doesn't necessarily mean a woman is suffering from PMDD. This is a common assumption made by women who are confused about their emotional state. As a female suffering from PMS monthly, I can admit that PMDD has become questionable in my mind. There have been many times that I have suffered anything from constant tiredne... ...uffering so women can continue to live prosperous and fulfilling lives without the burden of PMDD's awful symptoms. Sources 1) Did you know? Depression, http://www.depression-net.com/dep.html 2) Information and Treatment for Depression, http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/index.html 3) Women and Depressive Episodes, http://www.womens-health.com/health_center/mental/depress_pms.html 4) Recognizing the range of mood disorders in Women, http://mentalhelp.net/articles/women.htm 5) Health Advice For Women, http://health.indiahit.com/ 6) Quick Self-Test, http://www.womens-health.com/health_center/mental/depress_pms.html 7) Symptoms and Treatment for PMDD, http://my.webmd.com/content/article/39/1663_52557 8) Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder, http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro01/web2/www.dr-bob.org/babble/20010221/msgs/55293.html
Sunday, January 12, 2020
The Myth of the Sincere or Authentic Individual In Charles TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s theoretical text, The Ethics of Authenticity, Taylor writes to evaluate the concepts of individualism. He believes that we can, and should, become conscious about what makes us who we are to effectively and sincerely choose which values or qualities to support. Using two short stories, Ã¢â¬Å"A Good Man is Hard to FindÃ¢â¬ by Flannery OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor and Ã¢â¬Å"Gimpel the FoolÃ¢â¬ by Isaac Bashevis Singer, alongside TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s text and the application of his concepts, one can examine if the central characters function as true individuals who act for themselves, or act to fulfill a historically desirable niche in human nature. Flannery OÃ¢â¬â¢ConnorÃ¢â¬â¢s 1953 short story Ã¢â¬Å"A Good Man is Hard to Find,Ã¢â¬ illustrates the story of a husband and wife, along with the grandmother and two children, who embark on a family road trip from Tennessee to Florida. Plot and character both unravel with the path of the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s travel, revealing the archetypal characteristics of a traditional American familyÃ¢â¬â annoying quirks and behaviors, back seat arguments between siblings; and the elderly, nitpicky, and proper grandmother. Following the greater part of the journey from Tennessee to Florida, the story ends with a final encounter with an escaped convicted murderer, The Misfit. The most prominent and perhaps easily scrutinized character from Ã¢â¬Å"A Good Man is Hard to FindÃ¢â¬ is the grandmother. Being the central protagonist in OÃ¢â¬â¢ConnorÃ¢â¬â¢s short story, she unfolds to be manipulative and self-involved, yet a prim and proper elderly woman. Throughout the text, the grandmother is continuously caught up in comparing her polished southern past to her disappointments of the present. She is entangled in her roots, appearing as a harmless chatterbox, aloof and amusing within her own progression. It is easy to forgive her for so much, including her innate racismÃ¢â¬â pointing at a Ã¢â¬Å"cute little pickaninnyÃ¢â¬ from the car window as well as entertaining the children with a tale of Ã¢â¬Å"a nigger boyÃ¢â¬ (187) who scoffs a watermelonÃ¢â¬â and her overly sound opinions that she states matter-of-factly. Upon departure for Florida, she dresses herself in her SundayÃ¢â¬â¢s best: dress, hat, and white cotton gloves all for the trip, so Ã¢â¬Å"in case of an accident, anyone seeing her dead on the highway would know at once that she was a ladyÃ¢â¬ (186). She is filled with the prejudices and traditions of her class and time. The grandmother, even when faced with the foreshadowed confrontation with The Misfit, continues to present her historical and deeply rooted Ã¢â¬Å"lady-likeÃ¢â¬ facade. Her talk with the Misfit begins as a manipulative attempt to save her own life, employing her refined techniques to persuade her killer. (Certainly, in her world, no decent man would Ã¢â¬Å"shoot a ladyÃ¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor 194). ) Her desperate attempts continue, trying further to charm The Misfit. Ã¢â¬Å"I know youÃ¢â¬â¢re a good man. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t look a bit like you have common blood. I know you must come from nice people! (OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor 192). The grandmother seems confident enough that her southern allure will win over the man as she has with all others; there is no resignation to the death she will soon face. Following the execution of the whole family, it is apparent to both the reader and the grandmother herself that death is imminent. Upon this realization, the woman experiences a revelation and attains the first unselfish sensibility displayed in the story. She finally ignores her idea of proper southern values in the face of death and reaches out to The Misfit. In an act of true sincerity, she simultaneously denounced her high moral standing and proclaimed acceptance of his character. In this state of disclosure Ã¢â¬Å"she murmured Ã¢â¬ËWhy youÃ¢â¬â¢re one of my babies. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re one of my own children! Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ The woman Ã¢â¬Å"reached out and touched him on the shoulder. The Misfit sprang back as if a snake had bitten him and shot her three times through the chestÃ¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor 195). The Misfit ends the powerful story by commenting on the grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s unauthentic character: Ã¢â¬Å"She would have been a good womanÃ¢â¬ ¦if it had been somebody there to shoot her every minute of her lifeÃ¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor 195) The assessment of individuality of Flannery OÃ¢â¬â¢ConnorÃ¢â¬â¢s character according to Charles TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s text results with a misleading outcome. In The Ethics of Authenticity, Taylor states, Ã¢â¬Å"we live in a world where people have a right to choose for themselves their own pattern of lifeÃ¢â¬ ¦to determine the shape of their lives in a whole host of ways that their ancestors couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t controlÃ¢â¬ (Taylor 2). The character of the grandmother is developed along a permanent historical linear path of ancestral beliefs and ideals; she was never provided an opportunity to be self-aware and take shape of her own life. In TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s terms, the woman has always been locked into her Ã¢â¬Å"great chain of Being,Ã¢â¬ adhering to her born role of a southern bourgeois woman that gives sense and meaning to life (Taylor 3). Never questioning her Ã¢â¬Å"naturalÃ¢â¬ values and qualities, the grandmother conformed to the ideals of, but not limited to, race, class, religion, and society, that are inherit to her aristocracy. Up until this point, it is possible to say that the grandmother is an unauthentic individual. When faced with the grave situation involving death and her ultimate existence, the grandmother abruptly diverges from the consistent track of her character development. This divergence from the typical character in the face of death allowed the grandmother to have an authentic experience in her last seconds with her killer. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦The grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s head cleared for an instant. She saw the manÃ¢â¬â¢s face twisted close to her ownÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ËWhy youÃ¢â¬â¢re one of my babies. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re one of my own children! Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ she admitted (OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor 195). This moment of true acceptance, sensitivity, and acknowledgement to others of different moral horizons reveals a brief moment of authentic individualism in the grandmother. In comparison to her overall persona for the entire plot, a glimpse of wholehearted moral relativism, or, according to Taylor, a mutual respect to morals and values apart from your own, can be read in the last few lines of the grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s existence. In the fleeting moments of her life, she shed her Ã¢â¬Å"naturalÃ¢â¬ identity, claiming true freedom from her inherited moral horizon. It is possible to say that in the last seconds of her life there was a transformative sense of character, the grandmother passed with the qualities of a true individual. Similar to OÃ¢â¬â¢ConnorÃ¢â¬â¢s character, the character of Gimpel from Isaac Bashevis SingerÃ¢â¬â¢s 1953 short story Ã¢â¬Å"Gimpel the FoolÃ¢â¬ can be equally examined for traits and characteristics of an authentic individual. The ironic story tells the life account of Gimpel: narrator, Yiddish baker, an inhabitant of Eastern Europe, and the one who gets the last laugh (although that comes later). Gimpel, seemingly naive and gullible, is the subject of many tricks and insults from his village for taking everything at face value, but was he really a fool, or an authentic individual? I am Gimpel the fool. Ã¢â¬ is how he opens his story (Singer 300). He gives his own reason when he says, Ã¢â¬Å"What did my foolishness consist of? I was easy to take inÃ¢â¬ (Singer 301). His promiscuous wife is disloyal to their marriage throughout his lifetime, resulting in illegitimate children that Gimpel wanted to believe he fathered; his neighbors take unfair advantage of him, subject ing him to endless pranks and fallacies for cruel entertainment; and even the village rabbi conspires against Gimpel, placing him at the receiving end of everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s jokes. Gimpel is ultimately surrounded by lies and cynicism to his approach to life. The Ã¢â¬Å"foolishÃ¢â¬ qualities that are expressed through Gimpel on the exterior are not all that meets the eye. Aware of his surroundings and how his neighbors treat him, Gimpel chooses to keep an open mind, to see the good in the world, and not waste his time with the bad spirits of those who make fun with him. Although constantly deceived by his contemporaries, Gimpel is always willing to give the benefit of the doubt. If he Ã¢â¬Å"ever dared to say, Ã¢â¬ËAh, youÃ¢â¬â¢re kidding! there was trouble. People got angryÃ¢â¬ (301). He says, Ã¢â¬Å"to tell the truth, I knew very well that nothing of the sort had happened, but all the same, as folks were talkingÃ¢â¬ ¦Maybe something had happened. What did I stand to lose by looking? Ã¢â¬ (301). His open approach and acceptance of a possible truth to endless false claims and jokes show Gimpel to be not gullible and simple, but holds a prominent mo ral relativism; he is accepting and sincere to otherÃ¢â¬â¢s qualities and values, however deceitful they may be. Ironically, it is the whole village that victimizes Gimpel that are the fools, and Gimpel who is the only non-fool. Gimpel didnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe more than half the things the people told him, yet he still went along with the deceits. Gimpel exemplifies a character that lacks an understanding of unnecessary anger, hatred, and bad tempers, and acts with a perceptive sense that belief is not a matter of proof but of will. From this perspective, Gimpel doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t appear to be so simple and foolish, on the contrary, instead man that fears missing an opportunity of believing something that may be true. Those who abuse Gimpel are the true fools them self, lacking the capacity to believe with Gimpel that everything is possible. This does not make him a fool because he believed the people, he knew for himself that none of the things said were anywhere near the truth. He believed because he wanted to believe. In conjunction with Charles Taylor, Gimpel maintains a heightened sense of awaren ess of his past to inform his present. The constant ridicule has shaped his view on life and despite the negative actions directed towards him, Gimpel is accepting to believe what others share with him. Its possible to say that he is still involved in a Ã¢â¬Å"great chain of Being,Ã¢â¬ but in context to the setting of the story these philosophies cannot fully apply. As a devout Jewish man, Gimpel lives his life with authentic and sincere individualism, while respecting the historic beliefs his society is based on that have not yet been shattered. In conclusion, the assessment of individuals with Charles TaylorÃ¢â¬â¢s text, whether fictional or physical, can result in a broad variety of assumptions based on the moral and historical background of a character. As seen with Flannery OÃ¢â¬â¢ConnorÃ¢â¬â¢s character, the grandmother did not appear to be an authentic individual until the final moments of her life; however, the character of Gimpel maintained a strong individualist approach to his life throughout the majority of the text. The characters, as Taylor wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦are called upon to be true to themselves and to seek their own self-fulfillment. What this consists of, each must, in the last instance, determine for him- or herselfÃ¢â¬ (14). Without the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s literary devices and plot structure to develop character, or a personÃ¢â¬â¢s absolute sense of being, the underlying individual cannot be accessed to live entirely for his or herself. Works Cited OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor, Flannery. Ã¢â¬Å"A Good Man is Hard to Find. Ã¢â¬ Literature: Reading Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Ed. Robert DiYanni. Compact Edition. New York: Mc- Graw-Hill, 2000. 185-95. Print. Singer, Isaac Bashevis. Ã¢â¬Å"Gimpel the Fool. Ã¢â¬ Literature: Reading Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Ed. Robert DiYanni. Compact Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000. 300-09. Print. Taylor, Charles. Ã¢â¬Å"Inescapable Horizons. Ã¢â¬ The Ethics of Authenticity. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2002. 31-41. Print. Ã¢â¬â, Ã¢â¬Å"The Inarticulate Debate. Ã¢â¬ The Ethics of Authenticity. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2002. 13-23. Ã¢â¬â, Ã¢â¬Å"The Sources of Authenticity. Ã¢â¬ The Ethics of Authenticity. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2002. 25-9. Ã¢â¬â. Ã¢â¬Å"Three Malaises. Ã¢â¬ The Ethics of Authenticity. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2002. 1-12.
Friday, January 3, 2020
When you see liquids stack on top of each other in layers, its because they have different densities from each other and dont mix well together. You can make a density column with many liquid layers using common household liquids. This is an easy, fun and colorful science project that illustrates the concept of density. Density Column Materials You can use some or all of these liquids, depending on how many layers you want and which materials you have handy. These liquids are listed from most-dense to least-dense, so this is the order in which you pour them into the column. HoneyCorn syrup or pancake syrupLiquid dishwashing soapWater (can be colored with food coloring)Vegetable oilRubbing alcohol (can be colored with food coloring)Lamp oil Make the Density Column Pour your heaviest liquid into the center of whatever container you are using to make your column. If you can avoid it, dont let the first liquid run down the side of the the container because the first liquid is thick enough it will probably stick to the side so your column wont end up as pretty. Carefully pour the next liquid you are using down the side of the container. Another way to add the liquid is to pour it over the back of a spoon. Continue adding liquids until you have completed your density column. At this point, you can use the column as a decoration. Try to avoid bumping the container or mixing its contents. The hardest liquids to deal with are the water, vegetable oil, and rubbing alcohol. Make sure that there is an even layer of oil before you add the alcohol because if there is a break in that surface or if you pour the alcohol so that it dips below the oil layer into the water then the two liquids will mix. If you take your time, this problem can be avoided. How the Density Column Works You made your column by pouring the heaviest liquid into the glass first, followed by the next-heaviest liquid, etc. The heaviest liquid has the most mass per unit volume or the highest density. Some of the liquids dont mix because they repel each other (oil and water). Other liquids resist mixing because they are thick or viscous. Eventually some of the liquids of your column will mix together.